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Declaring variables

When declaring variables, you usually use a Dim statement. A declaration statement can be placed within a procedure to create a procedure-level variable. Or it may be placed at the top of a module, in the Declarations section, to create a module-level variable.

The following example creates the variable and specifies the String data type.

Dim strName As String

If this statement appears within a procedure, the variable strName can be used only in that procedure. If the statement appears in the Declarations section of the module, the variable strName is available to all procedures within the module, but not to procedures in other modules in the project.

To make this variable available to all procedures in the project, precede it with the Public statement, as in the following example:

Public strName As String

For information about naming your variables, see VBA naming rules.

Variables can be declared as one of the following data types: Boolean, Byte, Integer, Long, Currency, Single, Double, Date, String (for variable-length strings), String * length (for fixed-length strings), Object, or Variant. If you don't specify a data type, the Variant data type is assigned by default. You can also create a user-defined type by using the Type statement.

You can declare several variables in one statement. To specify a data type, you must include the data type for each variable.

In the following statement, the variables intX, intY, and intZ are declared as type Integer.

Dim intX As Integer, intY As Integer, intZ As Integer

In the following statement, intX and intY are declared as type Variant, and only intZ is declared as type Integer.

Dim intX, intY, intZ As Integer

You don't have to supply the variable's data type in the declaration statement. If you omit the data type, the variable will be of type Variant.

The shorthand to declare x and y as Integer in the statement above is:

Dim intX%, intY%, intZ as Integer

The shorthand for the types is: % -integer; & -long; @ -currency; # -double; ! -single; $ -string

Public statement

Use the Public statement to declare public module-level variables.

Public strName As String

Public variables can be used in any procedures in the project. If a public variable is declared in a standard module or a class module, it can also be used in any projects that reference the project where the public variable is declared.

Private statement

Use the Private statement to declare private module-level variables.

Private MyName As String

Private variables can be used only by procedures in the same module.

Static statement

When you use the Static statement instead of a Dim statement to declare a variable in a procedure, the declared variable will retain its value between calls to that procedure.

Option Explicit statement

You can implicitly declare a variable in Visual Basic simply by using it in an assignment statement. All variables that are implicitly declared are of type Variant. Variables of type Variant require more memory resources than most other variables. Your application will be more efficient if you declare variables explicitly and with a specific data type. Explicitly declaring all variables reduces the incidence of naming-conflict errors and spelling mistakes.

If you don't want Visual Basic to make implicit declarations, you can place the Option Explicit statement in a module before any procedures. This statement requires you to explicitly declare all variables within the module. If a module includes the Option Explicit statement, a compile-time error will occur when Visual Basic encounters a variable name that has not been previously declared, or that has been spelled incorrectly.

You can set an option in your Visual Basic programming environment to automatically include the Option Explicit statement in all new modules. See your application's documentation for help on how to change Visual Basic environment options. Note that this option does not change existing code that you have written.

Declaring an object variable for automation

When you use one application to control another application's objects, you should set a reference to the other application's type library. After you set a reference, you can declare object variables according to their most specific type. For example, if you are in Microsoft Word when you set a reference to the Microsoft Excel type library, you can declare a variable of type Worksheet from within Word to represent an Excel Worksheet object.

If you are using another application to control Microsoft Access objects, in most cases, you can declare object variables according to their most specific type. You can also use the New keyword to create a new instance of an object automatically. However, you may have to indicate that it is a Microsoft Access object. For example, when you declare an object variable to represent an Access form from within Visual Basic, you must distinguish the Access Form object from a Visual Basic Form object. Include the name of the type library in the variable declaration, as in the following example:

Dim frmOrders As New Access.Form

Some applications don't recognize individual Access object types. Even if you set a reference to the Access type library from these applications, you must declare all Access object variables as type Object. Nor can you use the New keyword to create a new instance of the object.

The following example shows how to declare a variable to represent an instance of the Access Application object from an application that doesn't recognize Access object types. The application then creates an instance of the Application object.

Dim appAccess As Object 
Set appAccess = CreateObject("Access.Application")

To determine which syntax an application supports, see the application's documentation.

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