# Excel Worksheet Functions

This page lists all of the built-in Excel Worksheet Functions grouped by category. Each of the functions including full description, examples of how to use, related tips & tricks and common errors.

In Excel 2010 and later, several functions have been implemented with new algorithms for improved accuracy.

Tip: To quickly find your search term on this page, press Ctrl F or F (Mac) and use the find bar.

## Compatibility functions

In Excel 2010 or later, these functions were replaced with new functions that provide improved accuracy and have names that better reflect their usage. You can still use them for compatibility with earlier versions of Excel, but if backward compatibility isn't required, you should start using the new functions instead.

`BETADIST(x,alpha,beta,[A],[B])`
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.
New function: BETA.DIST function.
BETAINV
`BETAINV(probability,alpha,beta,[A],[B])`
Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution.
New function: BETA.INV function.
BINOMDIST
`BINOMDIST(number_s,trials,probability_s,cumulative)`
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.
New function: BINOM.DIST function.
CHIDIST
`CHIDIST(x,deg_freedom)`
Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
New function: CHISQ.DIST function and CHISQ.DIST.RT function.
CHIINV
`CHIINV(probability,deg_freedom)`
Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
New function: CHISQ.INV function and CHISQ.INV.RT function.
CHITEST
`CHITEST(actual_range,expected_range)`
Returns the test for independence.
New function: CHISQ.TEST function.
CONFIDENCE
`CONFIDENCE(alpha,standard_dev,size)`
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.
New function: CONFIDENCE.NORM function and CONFIDENCE.T function.
COVAR
`COVAR(array1,array2)`
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations.
New function: COVARIANCE.P function and COVARIANCE.S function.
CRITBINOM
`CRITBINOM(trials,probability_s,alpha)`
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value.
New function: BINOM.INV function.
EXPONDIST
`EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative)`
Returns the exponential distribution.
New function: EXPON.DIST function.
FDIST
`FDIST(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)`
Returns the F probability distribution.
New function: F.DIST function and F.DIST.RT function.
FINV
`FINV(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)`
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
New function: F.INV function and F.INV.RT function.
FTEST
`FTEST(array1,array2)`
Returns the result of an F-test.
New function: F.TEST function.
`GAMMADIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)`
Returns the gamma distribution.
New function: GAMMA.DIST function.
GAMMAINV
`GAMMAINV(probability,alpha,beta)`
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.
New function: GAMMA.INV function.
HYPGEOMDIST
`HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s,number_sample,population_s,number_pop)`
Returns the hypergeometric distribution.
New function: HYPGEOM.DIST function.
`LOGINV(probability, mean, standard_dev)`
Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function.
New function: LOGNORM.INV function.
LOGNORMDIST
`LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)`
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution.
New function: LOGNORM.DIST function.
MODE
`MODE(number1,[number2],...)`
Returns the most common value in a data set.
New function: MODE.MULT function and MODE.SNGL function.
NEGBINOMDIST
`NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,probability_s)`
Returns the negative binomial distribution.
New function: NEGBINOM.DIST function.
NORMDIST
`LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)`
Returns the normal cumulative distribution.
New function: NORM.DIST function.
NORMINV
`NORMINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)`
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution.
New function: NORM.INV function.
NORMSDIST
`NORMSDIST(z)`
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution.
New function: NORM.S.DIST function.
NORMSINV
`NORMSINV(probability)`
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution.
New function: NORM.S.INV function.
PERCENTILE
`PERCENTILE(array,k)`
Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range.
New function: PERCENTILE.EXC function and PERCENTILE.INC function.
PERCENTRANK
`PERCENTRANK(array,x,[significance])`
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set.
New function: PERCENTRANK.EXC function and PERCENTRANK.INC function.
POISSON
`POISSON(x,mean,cumulative)`
Returns the Poisson distribution.
New function: POISSON.DIST function.
QUARTILE
`QUARTILE(array,quart)`
Returns the quartile of a data set.
New function: QUARTILE.EXC function and QUARTILE.INC function.
RANK
`RANK(number,ref,[order])`
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
New function: RANK.AVG function and RANK.EQ function.
STDEV
`STDEV(number1,[number2],...)`
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample.
New function: STDEV.S function.
STDEVP
`STDEVP(number1,[number2],...)`
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population.
New function: STDEV.P function.
TDIST
`TDIST(x,deg_freedom,tails)`
Returns the Student's t-distribution.
New function: T.DIST.2T function and T.DIST.RT function.
TINV
`TINV(probability,deg_freedom)`
Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution.
New function: T.INV.2T function or T.INV function.
TTEST
`TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)`
Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test.
New function: T.TEST function.
VAR
`VAR(number1,[number2],...)`
Estimates variance based on a sample.
New function: VAR.S function.
VARP
`VARP(number1,[number2],...)`
Calculates variance based on the entire population.
New function: VAR.P function.
WEIBULL
`WEIBULL(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)`
Returns the Weibull distribution.
New function: WEIBULL.DIST function.
ZTEST
`ZTEST(array,x,[sigma])`
Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test.
New function: Z.TEST function.

## Cube Functions

CUBEKPIMEMBER
`CUBEKPIMEMBER(connection, kpi_name, kpi_property, [caption])`
Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) property and displays the KPI name in the cell.
CUBEMEMBER
`CUBEMEMBER(connection, member_expression, [caption])`
Returns a member or tuple from the cube.
CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY
`CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY(connection, member_expression, property)`
Returns the value of a member property from the cube.
CUBERANKEDMEMBER
`CUBERANKEDMEMBER(connection, set_expression, rank, [caption])`
Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set.
CUBESET
`CUBESET(connection, set_expression, [caption], [sort_order], [sort_by])`
Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel.
CUBESETCOUNT
`CUBESETCOUNT(set)`
Returns the number of items in a set.
CUBEVALUE
`CUBEVALUE(connection, [member_expression1], [member_expression2], …)`
Returns an aggregated value from the cube.

## Database Functions

DAVERAGE
`DAVERAGE(database, field, criteria)`
Returns the average of selected database entries.
DCOUNT
`DCOUNT(database, field, criteria)`
Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database.
DCOUNTA
`DCOUNTA(database, field, criteria)`
Counts nonblank cells in a database.
DGET
`DGET(database, field, criteria)`
Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria.
DMAX
`DMAX(database, field, criteria)`
Returns the maximum value from selected database entries.
DMIN
`DMIN(database, field, criteria)`
Returns the minimum value from selected database entries.
DPRODUCT
`DPRODUCT(database, field, criteria)`
Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database.
DSTDEV
`DSTDEV(database, field, criteria)`
Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries.
DSTDEVP
`DSTDEVP(database, field, criteria)`
Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries.
DSUM
`DSUM(database, field, criteria)`
Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria.
DVAR
`DVAR(database, field, criteria)`
Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries.
DVARP
`DVARP(database, field, criteria)`
Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries.

## Date and Time Functions

DATE
`DATE(year,month,day)`
Returns the serial number of a particular date.
DATEVALUE
`DATEVALUE(date_text)`
Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number.
DAY
`DAY(serial_number)`
Converts a serial number to a day of the month.
DAYS
`DAYS(end_date, start_date)`
Returns the number of days between two dates.
DAYS360
`DAYS360(start_date,end_date,[method])`
Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year.
EDATE
`EDATE(start_date, months)`
Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date.
EOMONTH
`EOMONTH(start_date, months)`
Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months.
HOUR
`HOUR(serial_number)`
Converts a serial number to an hour.
ISOWEEKNUM
`ISOWEEKNUM(date)`
Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date.
MINUTE
`MINUTE(serial_number)`
Converts a serial number to a minute.
MONTH
`MONTH(serial_number)`
Converts a serial number to a month.
NETWORKDAYS
`NETWORKDAYS(start_date, end_date, [holidays])`
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates.
NETWORKDAYS.INTL
`NETWORKDAYS.INTL(start_date, end_date, [weekend], [holidays])`
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days.
NOW
`NOW()`
Returns the serial number of the current date and time.
SECOND
`SECOND(serial_number)`
Converts a serial number to a second.
TIME
`TIME(hour, minute, second)`
Returns the serial number of a particular time.
TIMEVALUE
`TIMEVALUE(time_text)`
Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number.
TODAY
`TODAY()`
Returns the serial number of today's date.
WEEKDAY
`WEEKDAY(serial_number,[return_type])`
Converts a serial number to a day of the week.
WEEKNUM
`WEEKNUM(serial_number,[return_type])`
Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year.
WORKDAY
`WORKDAY(start_date, days, [holidays])`
Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays.
WORKDAY.INTL
`WORKDAY.INTL(start_date, days, [weekend], [holidays])`
Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days.
YEAR
`YEAR(serial_number)`
Converts a serial number to a year.
YEARFRAC
`YEARFRAC(start_date, end_date, [basis])`
Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date.

## Engineering Functions

BESSELI
`BESSELI(X, N)`
Returns the modified Bessel function In(x).
BESSELJ
`BESSELJ(X, N)`
Returns the Bessel function Jn(x).
BESSELK
`BESSELK(X, N)`
Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x).
BESSELY
`BESSELY(X, N)`
Returns the Bessel function Yn(x).
BIN2DEC
`BIN2DEC(number)`
Converts a binary number to decimal.
BIN2HEX
`BIN2HEX(number, [places])`
Converts a binary number to hexadecimal.
BIN2OCT
`BIN2OCT(number, [places])`
Converts a binary number to octal.
BITAND
`BITAND( number1, number2)`
Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers.
BITLSHIFT
`BITLSHIFT(number, shift_amount)`
Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits.
BITOR
`BITOR(number1, number2)`
Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers.
BITRSHIFT
`BITRSHIFT(number, shift_amount)`
Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits.
BITXOR
`BITXOR(number1, number2)`
Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers.
COMPLEX
`COMPLEX(real_num, i_num, [suffix])`
Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.
CONVERT
`CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit)`
Converts a number from one measurement system to another.
DEC2BIN
`DEC2BIN(number, [places])`
Converts a decimal number to binary.
DEC2HEX
`DEC2HEX(number, [places])`
Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal.
DEC2OCT
`DEC2OCT(number, [places])`
Converts a decimal number to octal.
DELTA
`DELTA(number1, [number2])`
Tests whether two values are equal.
ERF
`ERF(lower_limit,[upper_limit])`
Returns the error function.
ERF.PRECISE
`ERF.PRECISE(x)`
Returns the error function.
ERFC
`ERFC(x)`
Returns the complementary error function.
ERFC.PRECISE
`ERFC.PRECISE(x)`
Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity.
GESTEP
`GESTEP(number, [step])`
Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value.
HEX2BIN
`HEX2BIN(number, [places])`
Converts a hexadecimal number to binary.
HEX2DEC
`HEX2DEC(number)`
Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal.
HEX2OCT
`HEX2OCT(number, [places])`
Converts a hexadecimal number to octal.
IMABS
`IMABS(inumber)`
Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number.
IMAGINARY
`IMAGINARY(inumber)`
Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number.
IMARGUMENT
`IMARGUMENT(inumber)`
Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians.
IMCONJUGATE
`IMCONJUGATE(inumber)`
Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number.
IMCOS
`IMCOS(inumber)`
Returns the cosine of a complex number.
IMCOSH
`IMCOSH(inumber)`
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number.
IMCOT
`IMCOT(inumber)`
Returns the cotangent of a complex number.
IMCSC
`IMCSC(inumber)`
Returns the cosecant of a complex number.
IMCSCH
`IMCSCH(inumber)`
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number.
IMDIV
`IMDIV(inumber1, inumber2)`
Returns the quotient of two complex numbers.
IMEXP
`IMEXP(inumber)`
Returns the exponential of a complex number.
IMLN
`IMLN(inumber)`
Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number.
IMLOG10
`IMLOG10(inumber)`
Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number.
IMLOG2
`IMLOG2(inumber)`
Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number.
IMPOWER
`IMPOWER(inumber, number)`
Returns a complex number raised to an integer power.
IMPRODUCT
`IMPRODUCT(inumber1, [inumber2], ...)`
Returns the product of from 2 to 29 complex numbers.
IMREAL
`IMREAL(inumber)`
Returns the real coefficient of a complex number.
IMSEC
`IMSEC(inumber)`
Returns the secant of a complex number.
IMSECH
`IMSECH(inumber)`
Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number.
IMSIN
`IMSIN(inumber)`
Returns the sine of a complex number.
IMSINH
`IMSINH(inumber)`
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number.
IMSQRT
`IMSQRT(inumber)`
Returns the square root of a complex number.
IMSUB
`IMSUB(inumber1, inumber2)`
Returns the difference between two complex numbers.
IMSUM
`IMSUM(inumber1, [inumber2], ...)`
Returns the sum of complex numbers.
IMTAN
`IMTAN(inumber)`
Returns the tangent of a complex number.
OCT2BIN
`OCT2BIN(number, [places])`
Converts an octal number to binary.
OCT2DEC
`OCT2DEC(number)`
Converts an octal number to decimal.
OCT2HEX
`OCT2HEX(number, [places])`
Converts an octal number to hexadecimal.

## Financial Functions

ACCRINT
`ACCRINT(issue, first_interest, settlement, rate, par, frequency, [basis], [calc_method])`
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest.
ACCRINTM
`ACCRINTM(issue, settlement, rate, par, [basis])`
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity.
AMORDEGRC
`AMORDEGRC(cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, [basis])`
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient.
AMORLINC
`AMORLINC(cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, [basis])`
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period.
COUPDAYBS
`COUPDAYBS(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date.
COUPDAYS
`COUPDAYS(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date.
COUPDAYSNC
`COUPDAYSNC(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date.
COUPNCD
`COUPNCD(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date.
COUPNUM
`COUPNUM(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date.
COUPPCD
`COUPPCD(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date.
CUMIPMT
`CUMIPMT(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type)`
Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods.
CUMPRINC
`CUMPRINC(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type)`
Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods.
DB
`DB(cost, salvage, life, period, [month])`
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method.
DDB
`DDB(cost, salvage, life, period, [factor])`
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify.
DISC
`DISC(settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, [basis])`
Returns the discount rate for a security.
DOLLARDE
`DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar, fraction)`
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number.
DOLLARFR
`DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar, fraction)`
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction.
DURATION
`DURATION(settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments.
EFFECT
`EFFECT(nominal_rate, npery)`
Returns the effective annual interest rate.
FV
`FV(rate,nper,pmt,[pv],[type])`
Returns the future value of an investment.
FVSCHEDULE
`FVSCHEDULE(principal, schedule)`
Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates.
INTRATE
`INTRATE(settlement, maturity, investment, redemption, [basis])`
Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security.
IPMT
`IPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type])`
Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period.
IRR
`IRR(values, [guess])`
Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows.
ISPMT
`ISPMT(rate, per, nper, pv)`
Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment.
MDURATION
`MDURATION(settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100.
MIRR
`MIRR(values, finance_rate, reinvest_rate)`
Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates.
NOMINAL
`NOMINAL(effect_rate, npery)`
Returns the annual nominal interest rate.
NPER
`NPER(rate,pmt,pv,[fv],[type])`
Returns the number of periods for an investment.
NPV
`NPV(rate,value1,[value2],...)`
Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate.
ODDFPRICE
`ODDFPRICE(settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period.
ODDFYIELD
`ODDFYIELD(settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period.
ODDLPRICE
`ODDLPRICE(settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period.
ODDLYIELD
`ODDLYIELD(settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period.
PDURATION
`PDURATION(rate, pv, fv)`
Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value.
PMT
`PMT(rate, nper, pv, [fv], [type])`
Returns the periodic payment for an annuity.
PPMT
`PPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type])`
Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period.
PRICE
`PRICE(settlement, maturity, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest.
PRICEDISC
`PRICEDISC(settlement, maturity, discount, redemption, [basis])`
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security.
PRICEMAT
`PRICEMAT(settlement, maturity, issue, rate, yld, [basis])`
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity.
PV
`PV(rate, nper, pmt, [fv], [type])`
Returns the present value of an investment.
RATE
`RATE(nper, pmt, pv, [fv], [type], [guess])`
Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity.
`RECEIVED(settlement, maturity, investment, discount, [basis])`
Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security.
RRI
`RRI(nper, pv, fv)`
Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment.
SLN
`SLN(cost, salvage, life)`
Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period.
SYD
`SYD(cost, salvage, life, per)`
Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period.
TBILLEQ
`TBILLEQ(settlement, maturity, discount)`
Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill.
TBILLPRICE
`TBILLPRICE(settlement, maturity, discount)`
Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill.
TBILLYIELD
`TBILLYIELD(settlement, maturity, pr)`
Returns the yield for a Treasury bill.
VDB
`VDB(cost, salvage, life, start_period, end_period, [factor], [no_switch])`
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method.
XIRR
`XIRR(values, dates, [guess])`
Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic.
XNPV
`XNPV(rate, values, dates)`
Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic.
YIELD
`YIELD(settlement, maturity, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis])`
Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest.
YIELDDISC
`YIELDDISC(settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, [basis])`
Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill.
YIELDMAT
`YIELDMAT(settlement, maturity, issue, rate, pr, [basis])`
Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity.

## Information Functions

CELL
`CELL(info_type, [reference])`
Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell.
ERROR.TYPE
`ERROR.TYPE(error_val)`
Returns a number corresponding to an error type.
INFO
`INFO(type_text)`
Returns information about the current operating environment.
ISBLANK
`ISBLANK(value)`
Returns TRUE if the value is blank.
ISERR
`ISERR(value)`
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A.
ISERROR
`ISERROR(value)`
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value.
ISEVEN
`ISEVEN(number)`
Returns TRUE if the number is even.
ISFORMULA
`ISFORMULA(reference)`
Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula.
ISLOGICAL
`ISLOGICAL(value)`
Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value.
ISNA
`ISNA(value)`
Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value.
ISNONTEXT
`ISNONTEXT(value)`
Returns TRUE if the value is not text.
ISNUMBER
`ISNUMBER(value)`
Returns TRUE if the value is a number.
ISODD
`ISODD(value)`
Returns TRUE if the number is odd.
ISREF
`ISREF(value)`
Returns TRUE if the value is a reference.
ISTEXT
`ISTEXT(value)`
Returns TRUE if the value is text.
N
`N(value)`
Returns a value converted to a number.
NA
`NA()`
Returns the error value #N/A.
SHEET
`SHEET(value)`
Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet.
SHEETS
`SHEETS(reference)`
Returns the number of sheets in a reference.
TYPE
`TYPE(value)`
Returns a number indicating the data type of a value.

## Logical Functions

AND
`AND(logical1, [logical2], ...)`
Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE.
FALSE
`FALSE()`
Returns the logical value FALSE.
IF
`IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])`
Specifies a logical test to perform.
IFERROR
`IFERROR(value, value_if_error)`
Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula.
IFNA
`IFNA(value, value_if_na)`
Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression.
NOT
`NOT(logical)`
Reverses the logic of its argument.
OR
`OR(logical1, [logical2], ...)`
Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE.
TRUE
`TRUE()`
Returns the logical value TRUE.
XOR
`XOR(logical1, [logical2],…)`
Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments.

## Lookup and Reference Functions

`ADDRESS(row_num, column_num, [abs_num], [a1], [sheet_text])`
Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet.
AREAS
`AREAS(reference)`
Returns the number of areas in a reference.
CHOOSE
`CHOOSE(index_num, value1, [value2], ...)`
Chooses a value from a list of values.
COLUMN
`COLUMN([reference])`
Returns the column number of a reference.
COLUMNS
`COLUMNS(array)`
Returns the number of columns in a reference.
FORMULATEXT
`FORMULATEXT(reference)`
Returns the formula at the given reference as text.
GETPIVOTDATA
`GETPIVOTDATA(data_field, pivot_table, [field1, item1, field2, item2], ...)`
Returns data stored in a PivotTable.
HLOOKUP
`HLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, row_index_num, [range_lookup])`
Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell.
`HYPERLINK(link_location, [friendly_name])`
Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet.
INDEX
`INDEX(array, row_num, [column_num])`
Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array.
INDIRECT
`INDIRECT(ref_text, [a1])`
Returns a reference indicated by a text value.
LOOKUP
`LOOKUP(lookup_value, lookup_vector, [result_vector])`
Looks up values in a vector or array.
MATCH
`MATCH(lookup_value, lookup_array, [match_type])`
Looks up values in a reference or array.
OFFSET
`OFFSET(reference, rows, cols, [height], [width])`
Returns a reference offset from a given reference.
ROW
`ROW([reference])`
Returns the row number of a reference.
ROWS
`ROWS(array)`
Returns the number of rows in a reference.
RTD
`RTD(ProgID, server, topic1, [topic2], ...)`
Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports?COM automation.
TRANSPOSE
`TRANSPOSE(array)`
Returns the transpose of an array.
VLOOKUP
`VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])`
Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell.

## Math and Trigonometry Functions

ABS
`ABS(number)`
Returns the absolute value of a number.
ACOS
`ACOS(number)`
Returns the arccosine of a number.
ACOSH
`ACOSH(number)`
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.
ACOT
`ACOT(number)`
Returns the arccotangent of a number.
ACOTH
`ACOTH(number)`
Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number.
AGGREGATE
`AGGREGATE(function_num, options, ref1, [ref2], …)`
Returns an aggregate in a list or database.
ARABIC
`ARABIC( text )`
Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number.
ASIN
`ASIN(number)`
Returns the arcsine of a number.
ASINH
`ASINH(number)`
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.
ATAN
`ATAN(number)`
Returns the arctangent of a number.
ATAN2
`ATAN2(x_num, y_num)`
Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates.
ATANH
`ATANH(number)`
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.
BASE
`BASE(Number, Radix,[Min_length])`
Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base).
CEILING
`CEILING(number, significance)`
Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
CEILING.MATH
`CEILING.MATH(number, [significance], [mode])`
Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
CEILING.PRECISE
`CEILING.PRECISE(number, [significance])`
Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.
COMBIN
`COMBIN(number, number_chosen)`
Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects.
COMBINA
`COMBINA(number, number_chosen)`
Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items.
COS
`COS(number)`
Returns the cosine of a number.
COSH
`COSH(number)`
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
COT
`COT(number)`
Returns the cotangent of an angle.
COTH
`COTH(number)`
Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number.
CSC
`CSC(number)`
Returns the cosecant of an angle.
CSCH
`CSCH(number)`
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle.
DECIMAL
`DECIMAL(text, radix)`
Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number.
DEGREES
`DEGREES(angle)`
EVEN
`EVEN(number)`
Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer.
EXP
`EXP(number)`
Returns?e?raised to the power of a given number.
FACT
`FACT(number)`
Returns the factorial of a number.
FACTDOUBLE
`FACTDOUBLE(number)`
Returns the double factorial of a number.
FLOOR
`FLOOR(number, significance)`
Rounds a number down, toward zero.
FLOOR.MATH
`FLOOR.MATH(number, significance, mode)`
Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
FLOOR.PRECISE
`FLOOR.PRECISE(number, [significance])`
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded down.
GCD
`GCD(number1, [number2], ...)`
Returns the greatest common divisor.
INT
`INT(number)`
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer.
ISO.CEILING
`ISO.CEILING(number, [significance])`
Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
LCM
`LCM(number1, [number2], ...)`
Returns the least common multiple.
LN
`LN(number)`
Returns the natural logarithm of a number.
LOG
`LOG(number, [base])`
Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base.
LOG10
`LOG10(number)`
Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.
MDETERM
`MDETERM(array)`
Returns the matrix determinant of an array.
MINVERSE
`MINVERSE(array)`
Returns the matrix inverse of an array.
MMULT
`MMULT(array1, array2)`
Returns the matrix product of two arrays.
MOD
`MOD(number, divisor)`
Returns the remainder from division.
MROUND
`MROUND(number, multiple)`
Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple.
MULTINOMIAL
`MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2], ...)`
Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers.
MUNIT
`MUNIT(dimension)`
Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension.
ODD
`ODD(number)`
Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer.
PI
`PI()`
Returns the value of pi.
POWER
`POWER(number, power)`
Returns the result of a number raised to a power.
PRODUCT
`PRODUCT(number1, [number2], ...)`
Multiplies its arguments.
QUOTIENT
`QUOTIENT(numerator, denominator)`
Returns the integer portion of a division.
`RADIANS(angle)`
RAND
`RAND()`
Returns a random number between 0 and 1.
RANDBETWEEN
`RANDBETWEEN(bottom, top)`
Returns a random number between the numbers you specify.
ROMAN
`ROMAN(number, [form])`
Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text.
ROUND
`ROUND(number, num_digits)`
Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.
ROUNDDOWN
`ROUNDDOWN(number, num_digits)`
Rounds a number down, toward zero.
ROUNDUP
`ROUNDUP(number, num_digits)`
Rounds a number up, away from zero.
SEC
`SEC(number)`
Returns the secant of an angle.
SECH
`SECH(number)`
Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle.
SERIESSUM
`SERIESSUM(x, n, m, coefficients)`
Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula.
SIGN
`SIGN(number)`
Returns the sign of a number.
SIN
`SIN(number)`
Returns the sine of the given angle.
SINH
`SINH(number)`
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
SQRT
`SQRT(number)`
Returns a positive square root.
SQRTPI
`SQRTPI(number)`
Returns the square root of (number * pi).
SUBTOTAL
`SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,[ref2],...])`
Returns a subtotal in a list or database.
SUM
`SUM(number1,[number2],...])`
SUMIF
`SUMIF(range, criteria, [sum_range])`
Adds the cells specified by a given criteria.
SUMIFS
`SUMIFS(sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)`
Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria.
SUMPRODUCT
`SUMPRODUCT(array1, [array2], [array3], ...)`
Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components.
SUMSQ
`SUMSQ(number1, [number2], ...)`
Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.
SUMX2MY2
`SUMX2MY2(array_x, array_y)`
Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
SUMX2PY2
`SUMX2PY2(array_x, array_y)`
Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
SUMXMY2
`SUMXMY2(array_x, array_y)`
Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays.
TAN
`TAN(number)`
Returns the tangent of a number.
TANH
`TANH(number)`
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.
TRUNC
`TRUNC(number, [num_digits])`
Truncates a number to an integer.

## Statistical Functions

AVEDEV
Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean.
AVERAGE
Returns the average of its arguments.
AVERAGEA
Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values.
AVERAGEIF
`AVERAGEIF(range, criteria, [average_range])`
Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria.
AVERAGEIFS
`AVERAGEIFS(average_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)`
Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria.
`BETADIST(x,alpha,beta,[A],[B])`
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function
New function: BETA.DIST function.
BETA.DIST
`BETA.DIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative,[A],[B])`
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.
BETAINV
`BETAINV(probability,alpha,beta,[A],[B])`
Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution
New function: BETA.INV function.
BETA.INV
`BETA.INV(probability,alpha,beta,[A],[B])`
Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution.
BINOMDIST
`BINOMDIST(number_s,trials,probability_s,cumulative)`
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability
New function: BINOM.DIST function.
BINOM.DIST
`BINOM.DIST(number_s,trials,probability_s,cumulative)`
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.
BINOM.DIST.RANGE
`BINOM.DIST.RANGE(trials,probability_s,number_s,[number_s2])`
Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution.
BINOM.INV
`BINOM.INV(trials,probability_s,alpha)`
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value.
CHIDIST
`CHIDIST(x,deg_freedom)`
Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
New function: CHISQ.DIST function and CHISQ.DIST.RT function.
CHISQ.DIST
`CHISQ.DIST(x,deg_freedom,cumulative)`
Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.
CHISQ.DIST.RT
`CHISQ.DIST.RT(x,deg_freedom)`
Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHIINV
`CHIINV(probability,deg_freedom)`
Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
New function: CHISQ.INV function and CHISQ.INV.RT function.
CHISQ.INV
`CHISQ.INV(probability,deg_freedom)`
Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.
CHISQ.INV.RT
`CHISQ.INV.RT(probability,deg_freedom)`
Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHITEST
`CHITEST(actual_range,expected_range)`
Returns the test for independence
New function: CHISQ.TEST function.
CHISQ.TEST
`CHISQ.TEST(actual_range,expected_range)`
Returns the test for independence.
CONFIDENCE
`CONFIDENCE(alpha,standard_dev,size)`
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean
New function: CONFIDENCE.NORM function and CONFIDENCE.T function.
CONFIDENCE.NORM
`CONFIDENCE.NORM(alpha,standard_dev,size)`
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.
CONFIDENCE.T
`CONFIDENCE.T(alpha,standard_dev,size)`
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution.
CORREL
Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets.
COUNT
Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments.
COUNTA
Counts how many values are in the list of arguments.
COUNTBLANK
Counts the number of blank cells within a range.
COUNTIF
Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria.
COUNTIFS
`COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2]…)`
Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria.
COVAR
`COVAR(array1,array2)`
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations
New function: COVARIANCE.P function and COVARIANCE.S function.
COVARIANCE.P
`COVARIANCE.P(array1,array2)`
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations.
COVARIANCE.S
`COVARIANCE.S(array1,array2)`
Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets.
CRITBINOM
`CRITBINOM(trials,probability_s,alpha)`
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value
New function: BINOM.INV function.
DEVSQ
Returns the sum of squares of deviations.
EXPONDIST
`EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative)`
Returns the exponential distribution
New function: EXPON.DIST function.
EXPON.DIST
`EXPON.DIST(x,lambda,cumulative)`
Returns the exponential distribution.
FDIST
`FDIST(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)`
Returns the F probability distribution
New function: F.DIST function and F.DIST.RT function.
F.DIST
`F.DIST(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2,cumulative)`
Returns the F probability distribution.
F.DIST.RT
`F.DIST.RT(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)`
Returns the F probability distribution.
FINV
`FINV(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)`
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution
New function: F.INV function and F.INV.RT function.
F.INV
`F.INV(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)`
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
F.INV.RT
`F.INV.RT(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)`
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
FTEST
`FTEST(array1,array2)`
Returns the result of an F-test
New function: F.TEST function.
F.TEST
`F.TEST(array1,array2)`
Returns the result of an F-test.
FISHER
Returns the Fisher transformation.
FISHERINV
Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation.
FORECAST
Returns a value along a linear trend.
FREQUENCY
Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array.
GAMMA
`GAMMA(number)`
Returns the Gamma function value.
`GAMMADIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)`
Returns the gamma distribution
New function: GAMMA.DIST function.
GAMMA.DIST
`GAMMA.DIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)`
Returns the gamma distribution.
GAMMAINV
`GAMMAINV(probability,alpha,beta)`
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution
New function: GAMMA.INV function.
GAMMA.INV
`GAMMA.INV(probability,alpha,beta)`
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.
GAMMALN
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x).
GAMMALN.PRECISE
`GAMMALN.PRECISE(x)`
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x).
GAUSS
`GAUSS(number)`
Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution.
GEOMEAN
Returns the geometric mean.
GROWTH
Returns values along an exponential trend.
HARMEAN
Returns the harmonic mean.
HYPGEOMDIST
`HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s,number_sample,population_s,number_pop)`
Returns the hypergeometric distribution
New function: HYPGEOM.DIST function.
HYPGEOM.DIST
`HYPGEOM.DIST(sample_s,number_sample,population_s,number_pop,cumulative)`
Returns the hypergeometric distribution.
INTERCEPT
Returns the intercept of the linear regression line.
KURT
Returns the kurtosis of a data set.
LARGE
Returns the k-th largest value in a data set.
LINEST
Returns the parameters of a linear trend.
LOGEST
Returns the parameters of an exponential trend.
`LOGINV(probability, mean, standard_dev)`
Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function
New function: LOGNORM.INV function.
LOGNORM.INV
`LOGNORM.INV(probability, mean, standard_dev)`
Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution.
LOGNORMDIST
`LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)`
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution
New function: LOGNORM.DIST function.
LOGNORM.DIST
`LOGNORM.DIST(x,mean,standard_dev,cumulative)`
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution.
MAX
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments.
MAXA
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values.
MEDIAN
Returns the median of the given numbers.
MIN
Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments.
MINA
Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values.
MODE
`MODE(number1,[number2],...)`
Returns the most common value in a data set
New function: MODE.MULT function and MODE.SNGL function.
MODE.MULT
`MODE.MULT(number1,[number2],...)`
Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data.
MODE.SNGL
`MODE.SNGL(number1,[number2],...])`
Returns the most common value in a data set.
NEGBINOMDIST
`NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,probability_s)`
Returns the negative binomial distribution
New function: NEGBINOM.DIST function.
NEGBINOM.DIST
`NEGBINOM.DIST(number_f,number_s,probability_s,cumulative)`
Returns the negative binomial distribution.
NORMDIST
`LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)`
Returns the normal cumulative distribution
New function: NORM.DIST function.
NORM.DIST
`NORM.DIST(x,mean,standard_dev,cumulative)`
Returns the normal cumulative distribution.
NORMINV
`NORMINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)`
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution
New function: NORM.INV function.
NORM.INV
`NORM.INV(probability,mean,standard_dev)`
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution.
NORMSDIST
`NORMSDIST(z)`
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution
New function: NORM.S.DIST function.
NORM.S.DIST
`NORM.S.DIST(z,cumulative)`
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution.
NORMSINV
`NORMSINV(probability)`
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution
New function: NORM.S.INV function.
NORM.S.INV
`NORM.S.INV(probability)`
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution.
PEARSON
Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.
PERCENTILE
`PERCENTILE(array,k)`
Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range
New function: PERCENTILE.EXC function and PERCENTILE.INC function.
PERCENTILE.EXC
`PERCENTILE.EXC(array,k)`
Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive.
PERCENTILE.INC
`PERCENTILE.INC(array,k)`
Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range.
PERCENTRANK
`PERCENTRANK(array,x,[significance])`
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set
New function: PERCENTRANK.EXC function and PERCENTRANK.INC function.
PERCENTRANK.EXC
`PERCENTRANK.EXC(array,x,[significance])`
Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set.
PERCENTRANK.INC
`PERCENTRANK.INC(array,x,[significance])`
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set.
PERMUT
Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects.
PERMUTATIONA
`PERMUTATIONA(number, number-chosen)`
Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects.
PHI
`PHI(x)`
Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution.
POISSON
`POISSON(x,mean,cumulative)`
Returns the Poisson distribution
New function: POISSON.DIST function.
POISSON.DIST
`POISSON.DIST(x,mean,cumulative)`
Returns the Poisson distribution.
PROB
Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits.
QUARTILE
`QUARTILE(array,quart)`
Returns the quartile of a data set
New function: QUARTILE.EXC function and QUARTILE.INC function.
QUARTILE.EXC
`QUARTILE.EXC(array, quart)`
Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive.
QUARTILE.INC
`QUARTILE.INC(array,quart)`
Returns the quartile of a data set.
RANK
`RANK(number,ref,[order])`
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
New function: RANK.AVG function and RANK.EQ function.
RANK.AVG
`RANK.AVG(number,ref,[order])`
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
RANK.EQ
`RANK.EQ(number,ref,[order])`
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
RSQ
Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.
SKEW
Returns the skewness of a distribution.
SKEW.P
`SKEW.P(number 1, [number 2],…)`
Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean.
SLOPE
Returns the slope of the linear regression line.
SMALL
Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set.
STANDARDIZE
Returns a normalized value.
STDEV
`STDEV(number1,[number2],...)`
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample
New function: STDEV.S function.
STDEV.P
`STDEV.P(number1,[number2],...)`
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population.
STDEV.S
`STDEV.S(number1,[number2],...)`
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample.
STDEVA
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values.
STDEVP
`STDEVP(number1,[number2],...)`
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population
New function: STDEV.P function.
STDEVPA
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values.
STEYX
Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression.
TDIST
`TDIST(x,deg_freedom,tails)`
Returns the Student's t-distribution
New function: T.DIST.2T function and T.DIST.RT function.
T.DIST
`T.DIST(x,deg_freedom, cumulative)`
Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution.
T.DIST.2T
`T.DIST.2T(x,deg_freedom)`
Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution.
T.DIST.RT
`T.DIST.RT(x,deg_freedom)`
Returns the Student's t-distribution.
TINV
`TINV(probability,deg_freedom)`
Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution
New function: T.INV.2T function or T.INV function.
T.INV
`T.INV(probability,deg_freedom)`
Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom.
T.INV.2T
`T.INV.2T(probability,deg_freedom)`
Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution.
TREND
Returns values along a linear trend.
TRIMMEAN
Returns the mean of the interior of a data set.
TTEST
`TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)`
Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test
New function: T.TEST function.
T.TEST
`T.TEST(array1,array2,tails,type)`
Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test.
VAR
`VAR(number1,[number2],...)`
Estimates variance based on a sample
New function: VAR.S function.
VAR.P
`VAR.P(number1,[number2],...])`
Calculates variance based on the entire population.
VAR.S
`VAR.S(number1,[number2],...])`
Estimates variance based on a sample.
VARA
Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values.
VARP
`VARP(number1,[number2],...)`
Calculates variance based on the entire population
New function: VAR.P function.
VARPA
Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values.
WEIBULL
`WEIBULL(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)`
Returns the Weibull distribution
New function: WEIBULL.DIST function.
WEIBULL.DIST
`WEIBULL.DIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)`
Returns the Weibull distribution.
ZTEST
`ZTEST(array,x,[sigma])`
Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test
New function: Z.TEST function.
Z.TEST
`Z.TEST(array,x,[sigma])`
Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test.

## Text Functions

ASC
`ASC(text)`
Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters.
BAHTTEXT
`BAHTTEXT(number)`
Converts a number to text, using the ? (baht) currency format.
CHAR
`CHAR(number)`
Returns the character specified by the code number.
CLEAN
`CLEAN(text)`
Removes all nonprintable characters from text.
CODE
`CODE(text)`
Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string.
CONCATENATE
`CONCATENATE(text1, [text2], ...)`
Joins several text items into one text item.
DOLLAR
`DOLLAR(number, [decimals])`
Converts a number to text, using the \$ (dollar) currency format.
EXACT
`EXACT(text1, text2)`
Checks to see if two text values are identical.
FIND
`FIND(find_text, within_text, [start_num])`
Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive).
FINDB
`FINDB(find_text, within_text, [start_num])`
Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive).
FIXED
`FIXED(number, [decimals], [no_commas])`
Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals.
WIDECHAR
`WIDECHAR(text)`
Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters.
JIS
`JIS(text)`
Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters.
LEFT
`LEFT(text, [num_chars])`
Returns the leftmost characters from a text value.
LEFTB
`LEFTB(text, [num_bytes])`
Returns the leftmost characters from a text value.
LEN
`LEN(text)`
Returns the number of characters in a text string.
LENB
`LENB(text)`
Returns the number of characters in a text string.
LOWER
`LOWER(text)`
Converts text to lowercase.
MID
`MID(text, start_num, num_chars)`
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify.
MIDB
`MIDB(text, start_num, num_bytes)`
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify.
NUMBERVALUE
`NUMBERVALUE(Text, [Decimal_separator], [Group_separator ])`
Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner.
PHONETIC
`PHONETIC(reference)`
Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string.
PROPER
`PROPER(text)`
Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value.
REPLACE
`REPLACE(old_text, start_num, num_chars, new_text)`
Replaces characters within text.
REPLACEB
`REPLACEB(old_text, start_num, num_bytes, new_text)`
Replaces characters within text.
REPT
`REPT(text, number_times)`
Repeats text a given number of times.
RIGHT
`RIGHT(text,[num_chars])`
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value.
RIGHTB
`RIGHTB(text,[num_bytes])`
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value.
SEARCH
`SEARCH(find_text,within_text,[start_num])`
Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive).
SEARCHB
`SEARCHB(find_text,within_text,[start_num])`
Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive).
SUBSTITUTE
`SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num])`
Substitutes new text for old text in a text string.
T
`T(value)`
Converts its arguments to text.
TEXT
`TEXT(value, format_text)`
Formats a number and converts it to text.
TRIM
`TRIM(text)`
Removes spaces from text.
UNICHAR
`UNICHAR(number)`
Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value.
UNICODE
`UNICODE(text)`
Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text.
UPPER
`UPPER(text)`
Converts text to uppercase.
VALUE
`VALUE(text)`
Converts a text argument to a number.

## User Defined Functions

CALL
`CALL(register_id,[argument1],...])`
Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource.
EUROCONVERT
`EUROCONVERT(number,source,target,full_precision,triangulation_precision)`
Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation).
REGISTER.ID
`REGISTER.ID(module_text,procedure,[type_text])`
Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered.
SQL.REQUEST
`SQL.REQUEST(connection_string,[output_ref],[driver_prompt],[query_text],[col_names_logical])`
Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming.

## Web Functions

ENCODEURL
`ENCODEURL(text)`
Returns a URL-encoded string.
FILTERXML
`FILTERXML(xml, xpath)`
Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified xpath.
WEBSERVICE
`WEBSERVICE(url)`
Returns data from a web service.