## Operator Precedence

Excel follows mathematical conventions when determining the order of operations used in a calculation. That order is as follows:

Symbol | Operator | Description | Precedence |
---|---|---|---|

() | Parentheses | Change the order of evaluation | 1 |

: , | Colon Space Comma | Reference operators | 2 |

- | Negation | Negation | 3 |

% | Percentage | Percent | 4 |

^ | Exponentiation | Exponentiation | 5 |

*/ | Multiplication Division | Multiplication and division | 6 |

+- | Addition Subtraction | Addition and subtraction | 7 |

& | Concatenation | Connects two strings of text | 8 |

= < > <= >= <> | Comparison | Comparison | 9 |

## Examples

Formula | Result | Description |
---|---|---|

=4+5*6 | 34 | Multiplication then addition |

=(4+5)*6 | 54 | Addition in parentheses then multiplication |

=4+5/2*6 | 19 | Division then multiplication then addition |

=(4+5)/(2*6) | 0.75 | Multiplication then addition then division |

=(4+5)/2*6 | 27 | Addition then division then multiplication |

=A10<A11 | FALSE | Returns `TRUE` if the value in cell A1 is less than the value in cell A2. Otherwise, it returns `FALSE` . |

="Microsoft"&" Excel" | Microsoft Excel | Joins the two text strings to produce Microsoft Excel. |

If two operations on the same level, such as multiplication and division, occur outside parentheses, Excel performs them in left-to-right order. E.g., `9*5/3=15`

.

You can change the order of operations by using parentheses. E.g., `(3+4)*5=35`

, where `3+4=7`

, and `7*5=35`

.

Operator precedence in Excel is not always the same as mathematical precedence. E.g., `=-5^2`

, which Excel evaluates as `(-5)^2`

, which is `25`

. However, mathematically, you’d expect `-(5^2)`

, which is `-25`

.

Formula | Result |
---|---|

=-5^2 | 25 |

=(-5)^2 | 25 |

=-(5^2) | -25 |

=-5%^2 | 0.0025 |