Operators specify the type of calculation that you want to perform on the elements of a formula. Excel follows general mathematical rules for calculations, which is **Parentheses**, **Exponents**, **Multiplication and Division**, and **Addition and Subtraction**, or the acronym **PEMDAS** (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally).

Using `()`

(parentheses) allows you to change that calculation order.

There are four different types of calculation operators in Excel: **arithmetic**, **comparison**, **text concatenation**, and **reference**.

## Arithmetic operators

To perform basic mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division; combine numbers; and produce numeric results, use the following arithmetic operators.

Arithmetic operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

`+` (plus sign) |
Addition | `=6+2` |

`–` (minus sign) |
Subtraction Negation |
`=6–2` `=-6` |

`*` (asterisk) |
Multiplication | `=6*2` |

`/` (forward slash) |
Division | `=6/2` |

`%` (percent sign) |
Percent | `60%` |

`^` (caret) |
Exponentiation | `=6^2` |

## Comparison operators

You can compare two values with the following operators. When two values are compared by using these operators, the result is a logical value: either `TRUE`

or `FALSE`

.

Comparison operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

`=` (equal sign) |
Equal to | `=A1=B1` |

`>` (greater than sign) |
Greater than | `=A1>B1` |

`<` (less than sign) |
Less than | `=A1<B1` |

`>=` (greater than or equal to sign) |
Greater than or equal to | `=A1>=B1` |

`<=` (less than or equal to sign) |
Less than or equal to | `=A1<=B1` |

`<>` (not equal to sign) |
Not equal to | `=A1<>B1` |

## Text concatenation operator

Use the ampersand (`&`

) to concatenate (join) one or more text strings to produce a single piece of text.

Text operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

`&` (ampersand) |
Connects, or concatenates, two values to produce one continuous text value | `="Micro"&"soft"` results in "`Microsoft` ".Where A1 holds "Last name" and B1 holds "First name", `=A1&", "&B1` results in "Last name, First name". |

## Reference operators

Combine ranges of cells for calculations with the following operators.

Reference operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

`:` (colon) |
Range operator, which produces one reference to all the cells between two references, including the two references. | `A2:B10` |

`,` (comma) |
Union operator, which combines multiple references into one reference | `=SUM(A2:B10,E2:D10)` |

` ` (space) |
Intersection operator, which produces one reference to cells common to the two references | `B3:D9 C2:C11` results: `C3:C9` . |